water_correlation(phase, T='pore.temperature', salinity='pore.salinity')[source]#

Calculates surface tension of pure water or seawater at atmospheric pressure

This model uses Eq. (28) given by Sharqawy et al. [1]. Values at temperature higher than the normal boiling temperature are calculated at the saturation pressure.

  • phase (OpenPNM Phase object) – The phase object to which this model is associated (i.e. attached). This controls the length of the calculated array(s), and also provides access to other necessary properties.

  • T (str (dict key) or numeric) – Name of the dictionary key on phase containing the ndarray of temperature values, in units of [K]. If a numerical value is passed (i.e. a scalar or ndarray) it gets used directly.

  • salinity (str) – The dictionary key containing the salinity values in g/kg


value – A numpy ndarray containing surface tension of seawater in [N/m]

Return type:



T must be in K, and S in g of salt per kg of phase, or ppt (parts per thousand). The correlation is valid for 273 < T < 313 K and 0 < S < 40 g/kg within 0.2 percent accuracy.


[1] Sharqawy M. H., Lienhard J. H., and Zubair, S. M., Desalination and Water Treatment, 2010.