openpnm.models.phases.surface_tension.water(target, temperature='pore.temperature', salinity='pore.salinity')[source]

Calculates surface tension of pure water or seawater at atmospheric pressure using Eq. (28) given by Sharqawy et al. Values at temperature higher than the normal boiling temperature are calculated at the saturation pressure.

  • target (OpenPNM Base object) – Object with which this model is associated. This controls the length of the calculated array, and also provides access to other necessary properties.

  • temperature (str) – Name of the dictionary key on target where the array containing temperature values is stored

  • salinity (string) – The dictionary key containing the salinity values. Salinity must be expressed in g of salt per kg of solution (ppt).


value – A numpy ndarray containing surface tension of seawater in [N/m]

Return type



T must be in K, and S in g of salt per kg of phase, or ppt (parts per


VALIDITY: 273 < T < 313 K; 0 < S < 40 g/kg; ACCURACY: 0.2 %


Sharqawy M. H., Lienhard J. H., and Zubair, S. M., Desalination and Water Treatment, 2010.